Internal Resistance

Internal Resistance

The opposition or resistance to the flow of a direct electric current within a cell or battery; the sum of the ionic and electronic resistance of the cell components. Its value varies with the current, state of charge, temperature, and age. With an extremely heavy load, such as an engine starter, the cell voltage may drop significantly. This voltage drop is due to the internal resistance of the cell. A cell that is partly discharged has a higher internal resistance than a fully charged cell, hence it will have a greater voltage drop under the same load. This change in internal resistance is due to the accumulation of lead sulfate in the plates.